These ideas had lingered on in corners of medieval Christendom, to come out into the open in the Cathar movement of the 12th and 13th centuries. The secular church, attended by the general population, was carved into regions governed by archbishops, and their territory was in turn divided into areas known as diocese, which were administered by bishops.
Science during the Middle Ages was essentially a theoretical subject and a branch of philosophy, hence the usual term of natural philosophy. This new inquisition was separated from the Roman Church and the inquisition that came before it. Thus the period has been damned for putting both too much and too little emphasis on reason.
The case of Simon de Phares from the end of the fifteenth century is illustrative of this. The legend itself describes the deeds of the last emperor of the world, who will arise in great anger to fight against the enemies of the faith.
Noblemen who held lands fiefdoms hereditarily passed those lands on within their family. Churchmen made up the brightest and best of the royal advisors and officials; and an additional benefit to secular rulers was that they could be paid out of revenues from church offices they held, and not from the royal purse.
In a short time the disciples of Cyril and Methodius managed to prepare and instruct the future Slavic clergy into the Glagolitic alphabet and the biblical texts. Joachim fascinated the faithful of his day with a prediction that the second age, the age of the New Testament presided over by Jesus Christ, would end in However, he died only a few weeks thereafter.
Beginning in the 12th centurythe Franciscan order was instituted by the followers of Francis of Assisiand thereafter the Dominican order was begun by St. Universities founded later needed to earn their position by the quality of their scholars and recognition by a pope or emperor.
This lends an extremely rarefied character to much of scholastic natural philosophy.