An introduction to the life of amedeo avogadro
Amedeo avogadro awards
But the quantitative proportions of substances in compounds seem only to depend on the relative number of molecules which combine, and on the number of composite molecules which result. Gay-Lussac is best remembered for his eponymous gas pressure-temperature law. Amedeo Avogadro Facts Amedeo Avogadro Facts Amedeo Avogadro August 9, to July 9, was an Italian physicist and mathematician who is best known for his groundbreaking work in molecular theory. Avogadro implies that there are always an even number of atoms in the molecule of a gas. For instance, John Dalton did not consider this possibility. The political changes of led to the suppression of this chair, which Avogadro lost in July His study of such elementary particles was highly influential in the field of atomic theory.
He contributed massively to an understanding of the properties and reactions of the new and "changerous" element fluorine. InAvogadro began private studies in physics and mathematics. He determined the molecular weights of many inorganic substances and hence the atomic weights.
Encyclopedia of World Biography.
His minimal contact with prominent scientists and his habit of citing his own results increased his isolation. From available data he calculated approximately correct atomic weights for carbon, chlorine, and sulfur. In the first he pointed out the connection with his classic memoir of —the mean distance between the molecules of all gases is the same under the same conditions of temperature and pressure. In particular he clarified the relation between atom and molecule which Avogadro had not made explicit. He postulated a relative scale of acidity in which oxygen and sulfur were placed toward the acid end of the scale, neutral substances in the middle, and hydrogen at the alkali end. He therefore introduced the arbitrary division of molecules and considered, for example, that a molecule of water or ice contained only a quarter as many atoms as one of steam. Accomplishments[ edit ] In honor of Avogadro's contributions to molecular theory, the number of molecules per mole of substance is named the " Avogadro constant ", NA. In this later work he was as isolated as he had been in his earlier speculations. Avogadro wrote a memoria concise note in which he described the experimental gas law that now bears his name. He decided that the formula of a compound in the liquid or solid state could not be the same as that in the gaseous state. Born in Turin on Aug.
In particular he clarified the relation between atom and molecule which Avogadro had not made explicit. Digital Collections Amedeo Avogadro Avogadro correctly hypothesized that equal volumes of gases, at the same temperature and pressure, contain equal numbers of molecules.
NOTES 1. He published these and related findings in a four-volume work entitled Fisica de' corpi ponderabili, ossia trattato della constituzione generale de' corpi He also applied his hypothesis to metals and assigned atomic weights to 17 metallic elements based upon analyses of particular compounds that they formed.
In addition, Avogadro was not part of an active community of chemists: the Italy of his day was far from the centers of chemistry in France, Germany, England, and Sweden, where Berzelius was based.
Berzelius had substituted atom for volume in cases of combining gases and had ended with the logical contradiction of half an atom.
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