His most original contribution to the modern world was breaking down complex tasks into simpler ones, with the help of specialised tools. According to Womack, Jones, and Roos 31the mass-production system carried the division of labor to its ultimate extreme: "[T]he assembler The mass-production system rested on the presumption that activities should be simplified to the nth degree and controlled from above, engineering and administrative functions delegated to staff specialists, and the exercise of judgment passed up the managerial ranks.
Economies of scope were produced by exploiting the division of labor -- sequentially combining specialized functional units, especially overheads such as reporting, accounting, personnel, purchasing, or quality assurance, in multifarious ways so that it was less costly to produce several products than a single specialized one.
In contrast to traditional Marxist theories, regulation theory does not assume that capitalist systems will automatically find a solution to every socioeconomic crisis; prolonged economic stagnation and social chaos are distinct possibilities. The tradeoff for these high wages, however, was a relentless increase in the pace of production.
Centers of Fordist manufacturing, such as Detroit and the German Ruhr Valley, suffered massive disinvestment, leaving the vast hulking ruins of factories in their wake. The method of analysis of the French Regulation School, especially the work of Lipietz, is presented and critically discussed as a potential contribution to a much-needed Marnan class analysis of contemporary capitalism.
Reschenthaler and Thompson, Like many other industrial metropolitan areas that emerged in this period, Detroit was not so much a city as "a series of buildings held together by transportation and communications" Bucci, p.
These innovations made possible the moving, or continuous, assembly linein which each assembler performed a single, repetitive task. Some of Ford's other activities fit the definition of hegemony as a process of generating consent through persuasion rather than force.